It involves identifying questionable negative information on your credit reports and challenging the negative items in question. But, it can also require following up with the credit bureaus and to get the negative items from your credit reports removed. If you have been a victim of identity theft, it is highly likely that you have multiple accounts that need to be disputed.
If you find information that is incorrect, you can file a dispute. Remember too, that items on your credit report that you don't recognize could also be potential signs of fraudulent activity — someone working to secure credit in your name for their own use. Make sure you're clear on items that could potentially be fraudulent, versus those that may simply be inaccurate.